In the United States, an estimated , people have chronic hepatitis B, but the number may be as high as 2. What should be done if hepatitis B vaccine series was not completed? Can hepatitis B be spread through food? Someone who is discriminated against because she actually has breast cancer or another condition would not be protected by GINA, even if the condition has a genetic basis. The safety of vaccines is always being monitored. The final rule clarifies that GINA prohibits an employer from retaliating or otherwise discriminating against an employee who refuses to participate in genetic monitoring that is not specifically required by law. It can take a few months before people with hepatitis A begin to feel better. Even with acute or chronic hepatitis B, you may be able to donate your organs or tissues. For example, an employer that fires an employee because of anticipated high health claims based on genetic information would violate Title II of GINA.
Can Ebola be prevented? The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. Another example of inadvertent acquisition is when a supervisor receives an unsolicited communication about an employee's family member e. What is hepatitis B? Acute infection can — but does not always — lead to chronic infection. When symptoms are present, young children typically do not have jaundice but most older children and adults with hepatitis A have jaundice. Although each can cause similar symptoms, they are spread in different ways and can affect the liver differently. Globally, approximately million people have chronic hepatitis B. Immune globulin provides effective protection against hepatitis A virus infection for up to 2 months, depending on the dosage given. The hepatitis B vaccine stimulates your natural immune system to protect against the hepatitis B virus. WHO does not advise families or communities to care for individuals with symptoms of Ebola virus disease at home. For children, check the Vaccines for Children Program. How should blood spills be cleaned from surfaces to make sure that hepatitis B virus is gone? Infection can also occur if the broken skin or the mucous membranes of a healthy person comes into contact with items or environments contaminated with bodily fluids from an infected person. Birth spread from an infected mother to her baby during birth Sex with an infected partner Sharing needles, syringes, or drug preparation equipment Sharing items such as toothbrushes, razors or medical equipment such as a glucose monitor with an infected person Direct contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person Exposure to blood from needlesticks or other sharp instruments of an infected person Hepatitis B virus is not spread through food or water, sharing eating utensils, breastfeeding, hugging, kissing, hand holding, coughing, or sneezing. An individual who refuses to participate in a voluntary genetic monitoring program should be informed of the potential dangers e. Getting two different vaccines at the same time has not been shown to be harmful. Can I donate blood if I have hepatitis B? Are there any situations in which a small business may obtain genetic information without violating GINA? Health-care workers are at greater risk of infection if they are not wearing correct personal protective equipment PPE or are not applying infection prevention and control IPC measures when caring for patients. Can hepatitis B be spread through food? Can the hepatitis B virus be spread through sex? Other examples of genetic tests include a test for a genetic variant for Huntington's Disease and carrier screenings of adults using genetic analysis to determine the risk of conditions such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, spinal muscular atrophy, or fragile X syndrome in future offspring. Practicing good hand hygiene — including thoroughly washing hands after using the bathroom, changing diapers, and before preparing or eating food — plays an important role in preventing the spread of hepatitis A. The test is especially important for people who may or have been exposed to the blood of a person infected with the hepatitis B virus.
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